Authors: Xuguang Wang; Robin E. Kim, Ph.D.; Oh-Sung Kwon, Ph.D., M.ASCE; and Inhwan Yeo, Ph.D.
Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid fire simulation method for civil structures in which a critical element subject to fire is experimentally tested while the remaining structural system is numerically analyzed simultaneously. The proposed method is different from previous approaches in that it is fully validated with full-scale specimen subjected to high temperature and that it is an automated displacement controlled test with deformation error compensation. The two substructures (i.e., an experimental model and a numerical model) are integrated through network to enforce displacement compatibility and force equilibrium. Then, the developed simulation method is applied to a fire simulation of a steel moment resisting frame where one of the columns is assumed to be under temperature load following ISO 834-11:2014 fire curve. The results show that the proposed hybrid simulation method can replicate the numerical prediction, and thus can be applied to more challenging structural systems such as the structural behavior under fire load, which is computationally difficult using numerical models.
Authors: Michael L. Whiteman, Pedro L. Fernández-Cabán, Brian M. Phillips, Forrest J. Masters, Jennifer A. Bridge, and Justin R. Davis
Abstract: This paper explores the use of a cyber-physical systems (CPS) “loop-in-the-model” approach to optimally design the envelope and structural system of low-rise buildings subject to wind loads. Both the components and cladding (C&C) and the main wind force resisting system (MWFRS) are considered through multi-objective optimization. The CPS approach combines the physical accuracy of wind tunnel testing and efficiency of numerical optimization algorithms to obtain an optimal design. The approach is autonomous: experiments are executed in a boundary layer wind tunnel (BLWT), sensor feedback is monitored and analyzed by a computer, and optimization algorithms dictate physical changes to the structural model in the BLWT through actuators. To explore a CPS approach to multi-objective optimization, a low-rise building with a parapet wall of variable height is considered. In the BLWT, servo-motors are used to adjust the parapet to a particular height. Parapet walls alter the location of the roof corner vortices, reducing suction loads on the windward facing roof corners and edges, a C&C design load. At the same time, parapet walls increase the surface area of the building, leading to an increase in demand on the MWFRS. A combination of non-stochastic and stochastic optimization algorithms were implemented to minimize the magnitude of suction and positive pressures on the roof of a low-rise building model, followed by stochastic multi objective optimization to simultaneously minimize the magnitude of suction pressures and base shear. Experiments were conducted at the University of Florida Experimental Facility (UFEF) of the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Natural Hazard Engineering Research Infrastructure (NHERI) program.
Authors: Li-Qiao Lu, Jin-Ting Wang, and Fei Zhu
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel framework to efficiently calculate a large-scale finite element (FE) numerical substructure in real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). It is composed of a non-real-time Windows computer and a real-time Target Computer. The Windows computer is used to solve the FE numerical substructure by parallel computing in soft real-time, while the real-time Target Computer generates displacement signals for the controller in real time. Based on the proposed framework, a RTHS with numerical substructure simulated in Windows environment is developed. It is demonstrated that the computational efficiency of the RTHS could be greatly improved by parallel programming.
Authors: C. Kolay, J.M. Ricles, T.M. Marullo, S. Al-Subaihawi, S.E. Quiel
Abstract: The essence of real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is its ability to combine the benefits of physical testing with those of computational simulations. Therefore, an understanding of the real-time computational issues and challenges is important, especially for RTHS of large systems, in advancing the state of the art. To this end, RTHS of a 40-story (plus 4 basement stories) tall building having nonlinear energy dissipation devices for mitigation of multiple natural hazards, including earthquake and wind events, were conducted at the NHERI Lehigh Experimental Facility. An efficient implementation procedure of the recently proposed explicit modified KR-? (MKR-?) method was developed for performing the RTHS. This paper discusses this implementation procedure and the real-time computational issues and challenges with regard to this implementation procedure. Some results from the RTHS involving earthquake loading are presented to highlight the need for and application of RTHS in performance based design of tall buildings under earthquake hazard.
Authors: Maikol Del Carpio R., M. Javad Hashemi, and Gilberto Mosqueda
Abstract: This study examines the performance of integration methods for hybrid simulation of large and complex structural systems in the context of structural collapse due to seismic excitations. The target application is not necessarily for real-time testing, but rather for models that involve large-scale physical sub-structures and highly nonlinear numerical models. Four case studies are presented and discussed. In the first case study, the accuracy of integration schemes including two widely used methods, namely, modified version of the implicit Newmark with fixed-number of iteration (iterative) and the operator-splitting (non-iterative) is examined through pure numerical simulations. The second case study presents the results of 10 hybrid simulations repeated with the two aforementioned integration methods considering various time steps and fixed-number of iterations for the iterative integration method. The physical sub-structure in these tests consists of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) cantilever column with replaceable steel coupons that provides repeatable highly nonlinear behavior including fracture-type strength and stiffness degradations. In case study three, the implicit Newmark with fixed-number of iterations is applied for hybrid simulations of a 1:2 scale steel moment frame that includes a relatively complex nonlinear numerical substructure. Lastly, a more complex numerical substructure is considered by constructing a nonlinear computational model of a moment frame coupled to a hybrid model of a 1:2 scale steel gravity frame. The last two case studies are conducted on the same porotype structure and the selection of time steps and fixed number of iterations are closely examined in pre-test simulations. The generated unbalance forces is used as an index to track the equilibrium error and predict the accuracy and stability of the simulations
Authors: Amin Maghareh, Christian E. Silva, Shirley J. Dyke
Abstract: Hydraulic actuators have been widely used to experimentally examine structural behavior at multiple scales. Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is one innovative testing method that largely relies on such servo-hydraulic actuators. In RTHS, interface conditions must be enforced in real time, and controllers are often used to achieve tracking of the desired displacements. Thus, neglecting the dynamics of hydraulic transfer system may result either in system instability or sub-optimal performance. Herein, we propose a nonlinear dynamical model for a servo-hydraulic actuator (a.k.a. hydraulic transfer system) coupled with a nonlinear physical specimen. The nonlinear dynamical model is transformed into controllable canonical form for further tracking control design purposes. Through a number of experiments, the controllable canonical model is validated.
Authors: Gaston A. Fermandoi and Billie F. Spencer, Jr.
Abstract: Real-time hybrid simulation is an efficient and cost-effective dynamic testing technique for performance evaluation of structural systems subjected to earthquake loading with rate-dependent behavior. A loading assembly with multiple actuators is required to impose realistic boundary conditions on physical specimens. However, such a testing system is expected to exhibit significant dynamic coupling of the actuators and suffer from time lags that are associated with the dynamics of the servo-hydraulic system, as well as control-structure interaction (CSI). One approach to reducing experimental errors considers a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) controller design, yielding accurate reference tracking and noise rejection. In this paper, a framework for multi-axial real-time hybrid simulation (maRTHS) testing is presented. The methodology employs a real-time feedback-feedforward controller for multiple actuators commanded in Cartesian coordinates. Kinematic transformations between actuator space and Cartesian space are derived for all six-degrees-of freedom of the moving platform. Then, a frequency domain identification technique is used to develop an accurate MIMO transfer function of the system. Further, a Cartesian-domain model-based feedforward-feedback controller is implemented for time lag compensation and to increase the robustness of the reference tracking for given model uncertainty. The framework is implemented using the 1/5th-scale Load and Boundary Condition Box (LBCB) located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, a single-story frame subjected to earthquake loading is tested. One of the columns in the frame is represented physically in the laboratory as a cantilevered steel column. For real time execution, the numerical substructure, kinematic transformations, and controllers are implemented on a digital signal processor. Results show excellent performance of the maRTHS framework when six-degrees-of-freedom are controlled at the interface between substructures
Authors: Ge Ou, Shirley J. Dyke, and Arun Prakash
Abstract: In conventional hybrid simulation (HS) and real time hybrid simulation (RTHS) applications, the information exchanged between the experimental substructure and numerical substructure is typically restricted to the interface boundary conditions (force, displacement, acceleration, etc.). With additional demands being placed on RTHS and recent advances in recursive system identification techniques, an opportunity arises to improve the fidelity by extracting information from the experimental substructure. Online model updating algorithms enable the numerical model of components (herein named the target model), that are similar to the physical specimen to be modified accordingly. This manuscript demonstrates the power of integrating a model updating algorithm into RTHS (RTHSMU) and explores the possible challenges of this approach through a practical simulation. Two Bouc–Wen models with varying levels of complexity are used as target models to validate the concept and evaluate the performance of this approach. The constrained unscented Kalman filter (CUKF) is selected for using in the model updating algorithm. The accuracy of RTHSMU is evaluated through an estimation output error indicator, a model updating output error indicator, and a system identification error indicator. The results illustrate that, under applicable constraints, by integrating model updating into RTHS, the global response accuracy can be improved when the target model is unknown. A discussion on model updating parameter sensitivity to updating accuracy is also presented to provide guidance for potential users
Authors: Ruiyang Zhang, Brian M. Phillips, Shun Taniguchi, Masahiro Ikenaga, Kohju Ikago
Abstract: Interstory isolation systems have recently gained popularity as an alternative for seismic protection, especially in densely populated areas. In inter?story isolation, the isolation system is incorporated between stories instead of the base of the structure. Installing inter?story isolation is simple, inexpensive, and disruption free in retrofit applications. Benefits include nominally independent structural systems where the accelerations of the added floors are reduced when compared to a conventional structural system. Furthermore, the base shear demand on the total structure is not significantly increased. Practical applications of inter?story isolation have appeared in the United States, Japan, and China, and likewise new design validation techniques are needed to parallel growing interest. Real?time hybrid simulation (RTHS) offers an alternative to investigate the performance of buildings with inter?story isolation. Shake tables, standard equipment in many laboratories, are capable of providing the interface boundary conditions necessary for this application of RTHS. The substructure below the isolation layer can be simulated numerically while the superstructure above the isolation layer can be tested experimentally. This configuration provides a high?fidelity representation of the nonlinearities in the isolation layer, including any supplemental damping devices. This research investigates the seismic performance of a 14?story building with inter?story isolation. A model?based acceleration?tracking approach is adopted to control the shake table, exhibiting good offline and online acceleration tracking performance. The proposed methods demonstrate that RTHS is an accurate and reliable means to investigate buildings with interstory isolation, including new configurations and supplemental control approaches.
Authors: Xin Li; Ali I. Ozdagli; Shirley J. Dyke, A.M.ASCE; Xilin Lu; and Richard Christenson, M.ASCE
Abstract: Hybrid simulation combines numerical simulation and physical testing, and is thus considered to be an efficient alternative to traditional testing methodologies in the evaluation of global performance of large or complex structures. Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is performed when it is important to fully capture rate-dependent behaviors in the physical substructure. Although the demand to test more complex systems grows, not every laboratory has the right combination of computational and equipment resources available to perform largescale experiments. Distributed real-time hybrid simulation (dRTHS) facilitates testing that is to be conducted at multiple geographically distributed laboratories while utilizing the Internet to couple the substructures. One major challenge in dRTHS is to accommodate the unpredictable communication time delays between the various distributed sites that occur as a result of Internet congestion. Herein, a dRTHS framework is proposed where a modified Smith predictor is adopted to accommodate such communication delays. To examine and demonstrate the sensitivity of the proposed framework to communication delays and to modeling errors, parametric analytical case studies are presented. Additionally, the effectiveness of this dRTHS framework is verified through successful execution of multisite experiments. The results demonstrate that this framework provides a new option for researchers to evaluate the global response of structural systems in a distributed real-time environment.
Authors: Cheng Chen, Weijie Xu, Tong Guo and Kai Chen
Abstract: Uncertainties in structure properties can result in different responses in hybrid simulations. Quantification of the effect of these uncertainties would enable researchers to estimate the variances of structural responses observed from experiments. This poses challenges for real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) due to the existence of actuator delay. Polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) projects the model outputs on a basis of orthogonal stochastic polynomials to account for influences of model uncertainties. In this paper, PCE is utilized to evaluate effect of actuator delay on the maximum displacement from real-time hybrid simulation of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure when accounting for uncertainties in structural properties. The PCE is first applied for RTHS without delay to determine the order of PCE, the number of sample points as well as the method for coefficients calculation. The PCE is then applied to RTHS with actuator delay. The mean, variance and Sobol indices are compared and discussed to evaluate the effects of actuator delay on uncertainty quantification for RTHS. Results show that the mean and the variance of the maximum displacement increase linearly and exponentially with respect to actuator delay, respectively. Sensitivity analysis through Sobol indices also indicates the influence of the single random variable decreases while the coupling effect increases with the increase of actuator delay.
Authors: Chinmoy Kolay, A.M.ASCE ; and James M. Ricles
Abstract: Existing state determination procedures for force-based finite elements use either an iterative scheme at the element level or a noniterative scheme at the element level that relies on an iterative solution algorithm for the global equilibrium equations. The former cannot ensure convergence in real-time computations, whereas the latter requires an implicit direct integration algorithm; therefore, these procedures are not applicable to real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) utilizing an explicit direct integration algorithm. A new procedure is developed based on a fixed number of iterations and an unconditionally stable explicit model-based integration algorithm. If the maximum number of iterations is reached, element resisting forces are corrected to re-establish compatibility, and unbalanced section forces are carried over to and corrected in the next time step. This procedure is used in the numerical simulation and RTHS of an earthquake-excited two-story reinforced concrete building. Results show that an accurate solution can be obtained even without performing any iteration. The influence of the model-based parameters of the integration algorithm on the stability and accuracy of the RTHS is also studied
Authors: Narutoshi Nakata , Richard Erb, and Matthew Stehman
Abstract: This paper presents a robust mixed force and displacement control strategy for testing of base isolation bearings in real-time hybrid simulation. The mixed-mode control is a critical experimental technique to impose accurate loading conditions on the base isolation bearings. The proposed mixed-mode control strategy consists of loop-shaping and proportional-integral-differential controllers. Following experimental validation, the mixed-mode control was demonstrated through a series of real-time hybrid simulation. The experimental results showed that the developed mixed-mode control enables accurate control of dynamic vertical force on the base isolation bearings during real-time hybrid simulation.
Authors: Mark Laier Brodersen, Ge Ou, Jan Høgsberg, Shirley Dyke
Abstract: Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations.
Authors: Pengfei Shi1, Bin Wu, Billie F. Spencer Jr., Brian M. Phillips and Chia-Ming Chang
Abstract: The equivalent force control (EFC) method has been developed for real-time hybrid testing to replace the numerical iteration of implicit integration with a force-feedback control loop. With this control loop, the EFC method can also compensate for the time delay in real-time hybrid testing. However, the delay compensation effect of the EFC can be influenced by factors such as noises in the measured displacement. This paper discusses the influence of the measurement noises on real-time hybrid testing with the EFC. The Kalman filter is proposed to filter the noises in the measured actuator displacement for improved performance. A higher proportional gain in the PID controller, which improves the effect of time delay compensation of the EFC method, can be allowed without losing stability when incorporating the Kalman filter. A series of real-time hybrid tests were conducted, and the results validated that the EFC method with Kalman filter can effectively compensate for the time delay.
Authors: Fei Zhu1, Jin-Ting Wang, Feng Jin1, Yao Gui
Abstract: Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) combines physical experimentation with numerical simulation to evaluate dynamic responses of structures. The inherent characteristics of integration algorithms change when simulating numerical substructures owing to the response delay of loading systems in physical substructures. This study comprehensively investigates the effects of integration algorithms on the delay-dependent stability and accuracy of multiple degrees-of-freedom RTHS systems. Seven explicit integration algorithms are considered; and the discrete-time root locus technique is adopted. It is found that the stability of RTHS system is mainly determined by the time delay rather than the integration algorithms, whereas its accuracy mainly depends on the accuracy characteristic of the applied integration algorithm itself. An unconditionally stable integration algorithm cannot always guarantee good stability performance; and the inherent accuracy or numerical energy dissipation of integration algorithms should be taken into account in RTHSs. These theoretical findings are well verified by RTHSs.