A majority of past applications of hybrid simulation have been in earthquake engineering, although there is great potential to impact a much broader set of problems by expanding the scope and capabilities of hybrid simulation to address a broad array of multi-hazard engineering research problems.

Traditional hybrid simulation is conducted at an extended time scale, typically uses higher-order computational models, and is applied when rate-dependence is not significant in the physical subsystem. Real-time hybrid simulation is needed when rate dependence plays a significant role in the dynamics of the physical subsystem, and it often uses both high-fidelity control of the actuation system and real-time execution of the computational models and associated supervisory tasks. Furthermore, geographically-distributed hybrid simulation and geographically-distributed real-time hybrid simulation have been demonstrated in isolated cases to further expand the range of possible experiments by coupling multiple laboratories.

Resources available include:

  • Hybrid Simulation Research Agenda (in progress)
  • Background Documents and Reports
  • HS Projects with Data
  • Sample Tools and Codes
  • Technical Reports and Publications
  • Learning materials

Background Documents and Reports

Hybrid Simulation Projects and Data Sources
Coming soon.

Past Workshops

1st MECHS Workshop "Breaking Barriers and Building Capacity"
ETH Hybrid2020
NEES Hybrid Simulation Workshop. August 7th, 2013. Reno, Nevada (PDF)

Sample Tools and Codes


Technical Reports and Publications

  • Development and Validation of a Robust Actuator Motion Controller (PDF)
  • Development and Validation of a Computational Tool for Real-time Hybrid Simulation of Steel Frame Structures (PDF)
  • Enabling role of HS within the NEES infrastructure in advancing earthquake engineering practice and research (PDF)
  • A Simple Strategy for Dynamic Substructuring and its Application to Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction ( PhD Dissertation )
  • Distributed Real-Time Hybrid Simulation: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Validation (PhD Dissertation)
  • Development and Validation of a Real-Time Computational Framework for Hybrid Simulation of Dynamically-Excited Steel Frame Structures ( PhD Dissertation )
  • Development of a Robust Framework for Real-Time Hybrid Simulation: From Dynamical System, Motion Control to Experimental Error Verification ( PhD Dissertation )
  • Development and Experimental Validation of a New Control Strategy Considering Device Dynamics for Large-Scale MR Dampers Using Real-Time Hybrid Simulation ( PhD Dissertation )
  • Development of a Weakly-Coupled Hybrid Simulation Method for Seismic Assessment and its Application to Reinforced Concrete Building Structure ( MAS Thesis )

Learning Materials

What courses should I take?
Virtual RTHS Sample Using xPC:
A Real Time Hybrid Simulation (RTHS) DEMO code:
A Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Demo Code for a Structure with Base Isolation:

Hybrid Simulation 101: Webinar Series

  • Anatomy of a Hybrid Simulation / Real-Time Hybrid Simulation (video)

Coming soon.